Prof. Malka Muchnik

Prof. Malka Muchnik



BA: 1982, Bar-Ilan University, Hebrew & General Linguistics

MA: 1986, Bar-Ilan University, Hebrew Language (Cum Laude)  

Ph.D: 1992, Bar-Ilan University, Hebrew Language


Master’s Thesis:

Expressions of Tense, Mood and Aspect in Modern Hebrew

Supervisor: Prof. Ora Schwarzwald


Ph.D. Dissertation:

Language Differences between Men and Women in Hebrew Journals

Supervisor: Prof. Ora Schwarzwald


Professional Tasks:

President of the Israeli Association for the Study of Language and Society [IALS] (2007-2009)

Founder Editor of Israel Studies in Language and Society [peer-reviewed e-journal]


Member of the Committee for the Teaching of Hebrew, The Ministry of Education (2009)

Head of the Hebrew and Semitic Languages Department (2010-2012)

Member of the Terminology Committee of the Hebrew Language Academy on Information Technology (since 2011)



Master Theses (approved):

1. Heftsiba Ichay: Women’s Dialogues in the Bible (co-supervisor) (2002).

2. Liat Raibee: Word Formation and Foreign Words in Yitzhak Ben-Ner’s Writing (2006).

3. Lior Josef: Meaning Apprehension of Words and Idioms in Hebrew When Worded in Masculine or Feminine Gender (2006).

4. Lilach Haser-Shabtay: Language Distinctiveness of the Ultra-Orthodox in Plays (2006).

5. Revital Shadmi: Language Mixing in Hebrew-Spanish Bilingual Children (2006).

6. Nesya Richter: The Interaction of Hebrew and English among Bilingual Children in Canada (2010).

7. Hila Shovali: The Protest Songs in the Israeli Rock: A Stylistic & Sociolinguistic Study (2012).

8. Tehila Shpack: Comprehension and Processing of Multiple Negation by Adolescents with Language Impairment (co-supervisor: Sharon Armon-Lotem) (2012).

9. Orit Torem: Jerusalem Announcements in 1860-1940 (2014).

10. Adi Peleg: Language on the Plate: Popular Eating Related Idioms Used in Talkbacks (2015).

11. Ronit Rubinsky: The Language of Davar Liyladim before the State Establishment (2015).

12. Ilanit Bokor Friling: Linguistic Characteristics Reflecting Cultural Groups in Tel Aviv in the First Decades of the 20th Century (2015).

13. Evgeni Spivak: Linguistic Changes and Quantitative Deviations in Different Translations of "A Hero of Our Time" by Michail Lermontov (2015).


Ph.D. Dissertations (approved):

1. Shirly Lazar: Sociological and Psychological Aspects in Lexical Specificity and Word Formation among Kindergarten Children (2004).

2. Rinat Golan: Formal and Informal Acquisition of Hebrew Language among New Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union and its Influence on the Social and Cultural Absorption (2008).

3. Heftsiba Ichay-Amichay: Speech Acts and Gender Relations in Modern Israeli Plays (2008).

4. Revital Shadmi: Hebrew-Spanish Bilingualism in Family Discourse (2011).


Ph.D. Dissertations (in progress):

1. Nesya Richter: The Impact of the Jewish School on Hebrew Language Maintenance among Bilingual Children in Canada.

2. Hila Shovali: Linguistic and Rhetorical Analysis of Internet Talkbacks in a Political Context.

3.  Ronit Rubinsky: The style of writing in children newspapers on the eve of the Israeli state's foundation and nowadays.




Books (Author):

1. Word-Formation in Contemporary Hebrew (Didactic Guide). Tel-Aviv: The Open University of Israel 1993 [Hebrew].

2. Grammar – The Easy Way (Handbook for Hebrew Learners). Bnei-Berak 1995 [Hebrew].

3. Language, Culture and Society. Tel-Aviv: The Open University of Israel 2001-2005 (4 Volumes and Reader) [Hebrew].

4. The Gender Challenge of Hebrew (2015). Leiden: Brill [English].

5.  Elective Language Study and Policy in Israel: A Sociolinguistic and Educational Study  (Malka Muchnik, Marina Niznik, Anbessa Teferra & Tania Gluzman) (2016). London & New York: Palgrave Macmillan [English].


Books (Editor):

1. Word-Formation in Contemporary Hebrew (Reader), with Raphael Nir. Tel-Aviv: The Open University of Israel 1993 [Hebrew].

2. Pseiphas (studies on different issues). Tel-Aviv: The Open University of Israel 1994-1996, No. 1-5 [Hebrew].

3. Talpiot 11 – In Honor of Prof. M.Z. Kaddari, with Dov Shahor, Aharon Mundshain and Ora Schwarzwald. Tel-Aviv 2000 [Hebrew].

4. Studies in Modern Hebrew on the 30th. Anniversary of the Israeli Association of Applied Linguistics, with Yitzhak Shlesinger. Jerusalem: Tzivonim 2003 [Hebrew].

5. Studies in Modern Hebrew and Jewish Languages – In Honor of Ora Schwarzwald (with Tsvi Sadan). Jerusalem: Carmel 2012 [Hebrew & English].


Articles and Book Chapters:

1. Expressions of tense, mood and aspect in Modern Hebrew. Hebrew Linguistics 27 (1989), pp. 29-54 [Hebrew].

2. The choosing of subordinating and coordinating conjunctions in the Israeli press. Proceedings of the Tenth World Congress of Jewish Studies, division D, volume I, 1990, pp. 157-163 [Hebrew].

3. Suffixed object pronouns in the press. Hebrew – a Living Language, editors G. Toury & R. Ben-Shahar. Haifa: Haifa University Press, volume I, 1992, pp. 119-128 [Hebrew].

4. Some rules of thumb for the teaching of non-vocalized ortography. Leshonenu Laam 43 (5) (1992), pp. 175-177 [Hebrew].

5. Teaching non-vocalized ortography without using the grammatical rules. Helkat Lashon 13 (1994), pp. 30-35 [Hebrew].

6. Is there a difference between male and female language in the press? Patuach 2 (1994), pp. 17-35 [Hebrew].

7. On a special category of Israeli slang. Leshonenu Laam 45 (2) (1994), pp. 65-74 [Hebrew].

8. A special use of the plural morpheme in Contemporary Hebrew. Proceedings of the Eleventh World Congress of Jewish Studies, division D, volume I, 1994, pp. 85-91 [in Hebrew].

9. Why do they need to translate? Pseiphas 2 – Foreign Influences on Contemporary Hebrew, editor M. Muchnik. Tel-Aviv: The Open University of Israel, 1994, pp. 49-56 [Hebrew].

10. Neologisms and word-formation in two books by S. Yizhar. Hadassah Kantor Jubilee Book, editors O. Schwarzwald & Y. Shlesinger. Ramat-Gan, 1995, pp. 130-134 [Hebrew].

11. The Tel Aviv language of Gafi Amir. Societatis Linguisticae Europaeae Sodalicium Israëlense, studia VII, 1995, pp. 17-22 [Hebrew].

12. A little suffix growing up. Helkat Lashon 23 (1996), pp. 13-22 [in Hebrew].

13. Review of ‘Unvocalized Hebrew Writing’ by Emmanuel Allon. Helkat Lashon 23 (1996), pp. 264-270 [Hebrew].

14. Men vs. women: Different communication. Hebrew Linguistics 41 (1997), pp. 79-86 [Hebrew].

15. S(O)V order in contemporary Hebrew literature. Talpiot 9 (1997), pp. 306-318 [Hebrew].

16. Personal titles in ultra-orthodox communication, with Haddassa Kantor. Hebrew Linguistics 45 (1999), pp. 53-60 [Hebrew].

17. Choosing words: a study on elections’ language. Contemporary Journalistic Language – Memorial Book to Mina Efron, editor M. Horvits. Tel-Aviv: Mofet Institute, 1999, pp. 39-47 [Hebrew].

18. Marked and unmarked directives in Modern Hebrew, with Hadassa Kantor. Contemporary Journalistic Language – Memorial Book to Mina Efron, editor M. Horvits.  Tel-Aviv: Mofet Institute, 1999, pp. 134-147 [Hebrew].

19. Adjective formation in Hebrew slang. Raphael Nir Jubilee Book, editors O.R. Schwarzwald, S. Blum-Kulka & E. Olshtain. Jerusalem: Carmel, 2000, pp. 377-389 [Hebrew].

20. Sentence length in two novellas by Judith Katzir. Talpiot 11 (2000), pp. 211-220 [Hebrew].

21. Syntactic structure and gender in two stories by Judith Katzir. Helkat Lashon 29-30-31-32 (2000), pp. 40-57 [Hebrew].

22. Word order changes in Rivka Meshulach’s two translations of Ibsen’s ‘An Enemy of the People’. Studies in Hebrew and Language Teaching in Honor of Ben-Zion Fischler, editors O.R. Schwarzwald & R. Nir. Even Yehuda: Reches, 2001, pp. 193-204 [Hebrew].

23. Good and politically correct, Helkat Lashon 33-34 (2002), pp. 74-94 [Hebrew].

24. Future perfect in Haim Beer’s writing. Leshonenu 65 (1) (2002), pp. 65-76 [Hebrew].

25. Sentence length in two novellas by Judith Katzir. Hebrew Studies 43 (2002), pp. 7-20 [English].

26. Suffixed object pronoun in Haim Beer’s writing. Proceedings of the Eighteenth Annual Meeting of the Societatis Linguisticae Europaeae Sodalicium Israëlense, No. 14, 2003, pp. 17-22  [Hebrew].

27. Gender characteristics in political writing. Hebrew – a Living Language, editors G. Toury & R. Ben-Shahar. Tel-Aviv: The Porter Institute, volume III, 2003, pp. 207-220 [Hebrew].

28. Discourse strategies of ‘Maxzirim Bitshuva’: The case of Rabbi Amnon Yitzhak. Studies in Modern Hebrew on the 30th. Anniversary of the Israeli Association of Applied Linguistics, editors Y. Shlesinger & M. Muchnik. Jerusalem: Tzivonim, 2003, pp. 168-183 [Hebrew].

29. Changes in word order in two Hebrew translations of Ibsen’s ‘An Enemy of the People’ by Rivka Meshulach. Target 15 (2) (2003), pp. 295-316 [English].

30. Morphophonemic characteristics of acronyms in Contemporary Hebrew. Hebrew Linguistics 54 (2004), pp. 53-66 [Hebrew].

31. Sociolinguistic characteristics in Busi’s writing. Helkat Lashon 35 (2004), pp. 5-19 [Hebrew]. 

32. Exclusive language usage in posters of ultra-orthodox communities, with Haddassa Kantor. Morashtenu Studies II-III (2004), pp. 239-249 [Hebrew].

33. On Almagor’s translation of Shakespearer’s ‘As You Like It’. Leshonenu 67 (1) (2004), pp. 79-91 [Hebrew].

34. Is Modern Hebrew a synthetic or analytic language? Suffixed and independent pronouns in the writing of Haim Be'er. Folia Linguistica XXXVIII (3-4) (2004), pp. 257-276 [English].

35. Discourse strategies of Maxzirim Bitshuva: The case of a repentance preacher in Israel. Text 25 (3) (2005), pp. 373-398 [English].

36. Suffixed or independent pronouns in Haim Be’er’s writing. Language Studies 10 (2005), pp. 113-124 [Hebrew].

37. Gender stereotypic language in Hebrew literature. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Womens Studies: Breaking the Glass-Ceiling, 2006. Famagusta, Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus [English].

38. On explicitation in translations of Sábato’s ‘The Tunnel’. Hebrew – a Living Language, editors G. Toury & R. Ben-Shahar. Tel-Aviv: The Porter Institute, volume IV, 2006, pp. 243-258 [Hebrew].

39. Listening as a means to learn the non-vocalized orthography. Kivunim (E-Journal),

(2006) [Hebrew].

40. Gender stereotypes in David Grossman’s writing. Helkat Lashon 37-38 (2006), pp. 49-60 [Hebrew].   

41. Language and gender. New Jewish Time: Jewish Culture in a Secular Age – An Encyclopedic View, editors J. Yovel & D. Shaham, 2007, volume 2, pp. 285-288 [Hebrew].

42. Gender differences in slang expressions as social communication. Social Issues in Israel 3 (2007), pp. 5-20 [Hebrew].

43. Formal and informal forms of address. Haivrit weahyoteha 6-7 (2006-2007), pp. 141-161 [Hebrew].

44. Telling the same story: His or her style (with Anat Stavans). International Perspectives on Gender and Language, editors J. Santaemilia et al. Valencia: Universitat de Valencia, 2007, pp. 318-332 [English]. 

45. Gender differences as social messages in Hebrew slang expressions. Cahiers dAnalogie et Diachronie 4 (2007), pp. 327-347 [English]. 

46. Language production in trilingual children: Insights on code switching and code mixing (with Anat Stavans). Sociolinguistic Studies 1 (3) (2008), pp. 483-515 [English]. 

47. Formal and informal acquisition of Hebrew language among new immigrants from the former Soviet Union and its influence on the social and cultural absorption (with Rinat Golan). Hed Haulpan Hechadash 92 (2008), pp. 107-115 [Hebrew].    

48. ‘Smart bomb’ and ‘friendly fire’: The use of language as a camouflage of violence. The Power of Words, editor Y. Gitay. Emek Yezreel: The Max Stern Academic College, 2009, pp. 114-129 [Hebrew].

49. Telling the same story to your child: Mothers’ versus fathers’ storytelling interactions (with Anat Stavans). Women and Language 32 (1) (2009), pp. 60-69 [English].

50. Is it just the telenovelas? Learning Spanish in Israeli schools. Sociolinguistic Studies 4 (1) (2010), pp. 45-62 [English].

51. Gender stereotypes in the language of Be My Knife by David Grossman. Text & Talk 30 (5) (2010), pp. 553-570 [English].

52. Hebrew learning and identity perception among Russian speakers in Israel (with Rinat Golan). Journal of Jewish Identities 4 (1) (2011), pp. 105-127 [English].

53. Linguistic simplification and generalization among second language learners (with Rinat Golan). Mizimrat Halashon, editors I. Haskel-Shaham et al. Jerusalem: The Ministry of Education, 2012, pp. 345-365 [Hebrew].

54. Is it possible to avoid sexism in Hebrew? Studies in Modern Hebrew and Jewish Languages – In Honor of Ora Schwarzwald, editors M. Muchnik & T. Sadan. Jerusalem: Carmel, 2012, pp. 487-505 [Hebrew].

55. Gender variations in Hebrew. Gender-Linked Variation across Languages, editors Y. Elhindi & T. McGarry. Champaign, IL: Common Ground, 2013, pp. 36-49 [English].

56. Attitude to Language. Encyclopedia of Hebrew Language and Linguistics. Leiden & Boston: Brill, 2013, vol. 1, pp. 232-235 [English].

57. Gender and Language. Encyclopedia of Hebrew Language and Linguistics. Leiden & Boston: Brill, 2013, vol. 2, pp. 17-20 [English].

58. Slang, Israeli Hebrew. Encyclopedia of Hebrew Language and Linguistics. Leiden & Boston: Brill, 2013, vol. 3, pp. 574-576 [English].

59. Taboos. Encyclopedia of Hebrew Language and Linguistics. Leiden & Boston: Brill, 2013, vol. 3, pp. 723-724 [English].

60. El español como lengua electiva en Israel. In: B. Blecua, S. Borrell, B. Crous & F. Sierra (eds.), Plurilingüismo y Enseñanza de ELE en Contextos Multiculturales. Girona: ASELE, pp. 624-631 [Spanish].

61. The study of foreign languages in Israeli schools: Russian, Amharic, French and Spanish (first author, with M. Niznik, T. Anbessa & T. Gluzman). Studies in Language Teaching in Israel, editors S. Donitza-Schmidt & O. Inbar. Tel Aviv: Mofet Institute 2014, vol. II, pp. 225-262 [Hebrew].

62. Norms determination in Hebrew and other languages. Ha’Ivrit 62 (2-3) (2015), pp. 129-138 [Hebrew].

63. Trying to change a gender-marked language: Classical versus Modern Hebrew. Gender, Language and the Periphery, editors J. Abbou & F. Beider. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 2016, pp. 26-47 [English]. 

64. Morphosyntactic changes in the translations of plays over the course of six decades. Hebrew Linguistics 71 (2017), pp. 75-99 [Hebrew].

65. Personal names in Modern Hebrew: A morphosyntactic and gender analysis. Folia Linguistica 51 (2) (2017), pp. 369-390 [English].



General Linguistics               

Modern Hebrew                    



Foreign Influences                 

Language and Gender


Hebrew Stylistics